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Fire Loss and Injuries

NFPA's Fire Sprinkler Initiative provides the latest research reports underscoring home fire losses and injuries.

Home structure fires, 1977-2013
Home structures are defined as dwellings, duplexes, manufactured homes, apartments, rowhouses, townhouses and condominiums.

 Home structure fires, 1977-2013

Source: NFPA's "Fire Loss in the United States During 2013" report

Healthcare Costs of Burn Patients From Homes Without Fire Sprinklers
January 2015 
This study conducts a cost analysis of patients with burn or inhalation injuries caused by home fires and compares this figure with the cost of implementing residential automatic fire sprinklers.

Characteristics of Home Fire Victims
NFPA, 2014
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the fatal and non-fatal victims of home fires, with information about victim age, sex, race, and region. Relative risk is also addressed, and additional information is provided about the relative importance of socioeconomic factors in predicting differences in the risk of fire and fire death. This report also discusses leading fire causes and risk factors such as activity when injured, victim location, and factors contributing to injury. Download an infographic highlighting key findings from the report.

Physical Disability as a Factor in Home Fire Deaths
NFPA, 2014
An examination of fire circumstances and victim characteristics when physical disability was cited as a factor contributing to fatal injury. The report compares these circumstances and characteristics with those found in home fire deaths overall. Published incidents are also included.

An Analysis of Volunteer Firefighter Injuries
NFPA, 2014
An analysis of volunteer firefighter injuries comparing their experience to all firefighter injuries. 

Fire Loss in the U.S.
NFPA, 2014
U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated 1,240,000 fires in 2013. These fires resulted in 3,240 civilian fire fatalities, 15,925 civilian fire injuries, and an estimated $11.5 billion in direct property loss. There was a civilian fire death every two hours and 42 minutes and a civilian fire injury every 33 minutes in 2013. Home fires caused 2,755, or 85 percent, of the civilian fire deaths.

Home Structure Fires
NFPA, 2013
NFPA estimates that U.S. fire departments responded to an average of 366,600 home structure fires per year during the five-year-period of 2007-2011. These fires caused an estimated average of 2,570 civilian deaths, 13,210 civilian injuries, and $7.2 billion in direct property damage per year. Almost three-quarters (71%) of the reported home structure fires and 84% of the home fire deaths occurred in one- or two-family homes, including manufactured homes. The remainder occurred in apartments or other multi-family housing.

White Paper on Upholstered Furniture Flammability
NFPA, 2013
An analysis on the upholstered furniture fire problem in the U.S., and an overview of existing fire test requirements

NFPA: Human Factors Contributing to Fatal Injury
NFPA, 2011
This report compares fatal home fire victims with five different human factors contributing to the fatal injury: asleep, possibly impaired by alcohol or drugs, physically disabled, possibly mentally disabled, and unattended or unsupervised child under 10 years old, with all home fire victims on a variety of fire causes and circumstances.